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权威的动摇、崩溃和建立:赫尔曼·沃克二战三部曲中的正统派理念研究

时间:2018-04-13 20:55来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
本文是一篇英美文学论文,文学论文一般包括:外国文学、中国古典文学和当代文学、文学理论、文学语言研究、文学批评、文学史以及作家作品研究等几个主要研究领域。
本文是一篇英美文学论文,文学论文一般包括:外国文学、中国古典文学和当代文学、文学理论、文学语言研究、文学批评、文学史以及作家作品研究等几个主要研究领域。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英美文学论文,供大家参考。
 
Introduction
 
1. The Achievements and Characteristics of Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk is a unique American writer in many ways. He is at odds withhis time and quite unpopular among critics, especially highbrow critics. Contrary tothe prevailing anti-war sentiment of his time, he uses traditional literary techniques topay tribute to America’s heroic participation in the World War II, depicting the warnot only as just, but also as worthwhile. In spite of the fact that he “swim(s) upstreamagainst the current antihero vogue” (Bannon 45), Wouk is extremely successfulamong the reading public. As a writer, Wouk has achieved almost everything a writermight dream of: a well-renowned reputation and huge commercial success. JonathanLeaf characterizes his success succinctly, claiming, “Wouk has been among the mostpopular and prolific novelists in American history” (70). In his unusually long careeras a popular writer, Herman Wouk (born 1915), by far, has altogether produced over adozen novels, three plays and three works of non-fictions1, in addition to hisnewly-released autobiography, Sailor and Fiddler. Even by age 40, in 1955, Woukhad been described by Kalb as the “most prolific of post-World War II authors” (Kalb9). At the age of 100, he finally decides to stop and take a rest.Of all the works he has produced, be they novels, plays or non-fiction, HermanWouk’s three works of war always stand out, having earned him his major fame andreputation as a world-renowned novelist. The Caine Mutiny, published in 1951, in thefollowing year won him the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The Winds of War and War andRemembrance, which were published in 1971 and 1978 respectively, were regarded ashis “Main Task” by the author himself.
..........
 
2. Critics’ Reviews of Herman Wouk’s
War WorksHerman Wouk’s novels are well-received by the reading public. In sharp contrastwith his popularity among casual readers, however, his work has only aroused alukewarm response from academics. In addition to a recently published autobiography,only two monographs dealing exclusively with Wouk and his works have beenreleased: Herman Wouk: the Novelist as Social Historian, by Arnold Beichman, andHerman Wouk, by Laurence W. Mazzeno. Beichman’s book is the first monograph ofits kind, covering the whole of Wouk’s writing career from his fledglingapprenticeship to his later maturity within the space of ten chapters. It also focuses onWouk’s major works, summarizing the main story plots of these books. What is more,Beichman enjoyed sole access to a large amount of the materials and documentationsfrom Wouk himself as part of the research process for his book. As he puts it:I had the privilege of being permitted to rummage through Wouk’s papers,boxes of them, which are now on deposit, unindexed and uncollated, atColumbia University, but closed to all except for this instance(Beichman2).Lucky enough to be the only man who was allowed to get access to Wouk’s materialsdeposited at Columbia then, Beichman was able to afford his readers a glance at theinner mentality of Herman Wouk during his composition, which was usually theforbidden zone for common intellectuals but which could prove to be quite invaluablefor researchers of Herman Wouk.
.........
 
Chapter One The Caine Mutiny: The Faltering of Authority
 
1.1 Captain Queeg--The Incarnation of Orthodoxy
The Orthodox Judaism pays attention to “sticking to the tradition, rigidlycomplying with the belief or faith of traditional Judaism, strictly abiding by thereligious laws or rules and firmly believing in the final rescue or redemption fromMessiah”(Pan 133). What is more, The Encyclopedia of Judaism gives the mostauthoritative definition of the Orthodoxy. As it goes:Term applied to the religious beliefs and practices of those Jews inCentral and Western Europe who, from the late 18thcentury, opposed thechanges brought about by the Emancipation, Jewish Enlightenment(HASKALAH), and the innovations of Reform Judaism (Wigoder 534).That is to say, Orthodox Jews embrace tradition and refuse change. In other words,the most striking feature of the Orthodox Judaism is the complete adherence to theJewish laws and comprehensive insistence on observing Jewish rules and regulations.The Orthodox followers are totally against change of any kind. They put emphasis onupholding the tradition and sticking to the custom. According to Henry PereiraMendes, the founding president of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations ofAmerica, Orthodoxy “the term is applied to those who are strict observers of forms aswell as the rules of conduct” (Eleff 97). In this way, the Orthodoxy must appear to bestubborn and rigid, incapable of making any new adjustment and adaptation to thenew circumstances brought about by a new era or new environment.
...........
 
1.2 Keefer and Maryk --the Epitome of Dissent
Generally speaking, Judaism is roughly divided into three religious sects,namely the Orthodoxy, the Reform and the Conservative, among which theOrthodoxy and the Reform are two extremes holding completely opposite positions interms of understanding and interpretation of Judaism. Completely contrary to theOrthodoxy, the Reform is quite flexible and pragmatic, ever ready to accept and adaptto the changing environment and circumstances. The followers of the Reform Judaismappear to be a group of flexible pragmatists. They put great emphasis upon theexternal environment and social circumstances they are facing up before they makedecisions or take actions, paying attention to the change of external environment.Consequently, the followers of Reform Judaism forcefully argue that the traditionalJudaism should be reformed and altered in order to meet the requirement of newenvironment and new condition of the new world1.In the minds of the Reform followers, the most important and urgent thing to doon the part of Jewish people when they set foot upon American soil is to do whateverthey can to try to fully adapt to the new environment of the United States.
.........
 
Chapter Two The Winds of War: The Foundering of Authority.............75
2.1 The Disintegration of Orthodoxy’s Authority...........76
2.2 The Sequent Dramatic Chaos......89
2.3 The Fatal Consequence--Jewish Disaster..........101
2.4 The Reasons For Jewish Disaster...........109
Chapter Three War and Remembrance: The Founding of Authority....123
3.1 Modern Orthodoxy and Dissent..........123
3.2 Erection of Modern Orthodoxy’s Authority.............133
3.3 The Amity in the Form of Zionism......149
3.4 The Reasons For Wouk’s Change in Orthodox Ideas..........163
 
Chapter Three War and Remembrance: The Founding of Authority
 
In the previous two chapters, efforts have been made to address the wholeprocess of deconstruction of former authority in Wouk’s first two war works. In TheCaine Mutiny, what Wouk intends to convey is a fact that the foundation ofOrthodoxy has been dramatically shaken by the combined efforts of Reform andConservative Judaism, even though the Orthodoxy staggers onward by enlistingdefense from God. In The Winds of War, Wouk continues to follow the Orthodoxthread and paints a gloomy picture in which authority of Orthodoxy completelycrumbles to dust. In this absence of authority, chaos takes hold within the Jewishcommunity. In this chapter, however, War and Remembrance will be investigated todiscern Wouk’s construction of new authority as a solution to the Jewish predicament.There is the undeniable change in Wouk’s Orthodox perspective. His first warnovel, The Caine Mutiny, in fact reflects his traditional Orthodox values, which moreor less mirrors his Orthodox upbringing. His later war novels, Winds of War and Warand Remembrance, however, deviate from these Orthodox ideals and turn insteadtoward the Modern Orthodox idea. Though it may seem inconspicuous, this subtlechange signifies an important transformation in Wouk’s religious thought. Though hehas been constantly criticized as a conservative writer who refuses change of any kind,Wouk’s shift from Orthodoxy to Modern Orthodoxy is sufficient enough to prove thatthis man is virtually not as traditional and conservative as he appears to be. The authoris capable of evolving his thought and developing his personal ideals.
..........
 
Conclusion
 
As a Jew, Wouk’s overriding signature is his unyielding faith in OrthodoxJudaism. Being a writer, Wouk’s compassion and concern invariably go to his Jewishcompatriots suffering from the unprecedented calamity during the World War II.Taking well advantage of his most productive years, Wouk had produced threeoutstanding works of war. Differing from many critics who argue that Wouk’s purposeis to present the panoramic picture of the war, the author of this dissertation, backedby the research that has been done over these works, firmly believes that the centraltheme Wouk intends to convey in these works of war is Jewish in essence. The vividaccounts of severe battles, the amazing recreation of historical events, and thesplendid descriptions of various adventures are only arranged by Wouk to serve as abackdrop to his description and analysis of the Jewish catastrophe. Consequently, themajor issues Wouk intends to explore in these war works, are Jewish-related issues.Wouk’s Jewish theme could be further divided into two subthemes: one is Wouk’sOrthodox idea and its change and development in these works of war; the otherrevolves around factors that lead to Jewish disaster during the World War II andWouk’s proposed ways to tackle it. These two subthemes are intertwined andcomplementary to each other with the Orthodox ideas looming dominant and far.In fact, Wouk’s writing style and characteristics are impacted dramatically byhis Orthodox stance. Even his widely-claimed traditional attitude and conservativeposition have something to do with his faith in Orthodox Judaism. Consequently,Orthodox idea plays a key role in Wouk’s writing career. To develop meaningfulfuture scholarship on Wouk’s writing, researchers will benefit from foregroundingtheir source material analysis in the author’s Orthodoxy. This dissertation focuses onthe Wouk’s Orthodox idea, and more importantly, pays attention to its developmentand change reflected in Wouk’s three works of war.
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References (abbreviated)
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