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易于贸易学论文:关于西方古典贸易的分析Review of Western classical theory of international

时间:2013-10-23 15:01来源:硕士论文作者:meisishow 点击:
在一定时期内,是世界各国开展对外贸易的主要理论依据,为促进国家之间的经济交往活动做出了重要贡献。然而,从全面客观的角度审视西方古典国际贸易理论,不难发现,它们是一

First. Overview of the classical theory of international trade
一、古典国际贸易理论概述


( one ) Adam Smith (Adam · Smith) Absolute Advantage Theory
(一)亚当·斯密(Adam·Smith)的绝对优势理论


1 . Historical Background
背景介绍
In the late 18th century . Capitalist manufacture in Western European countries gained unprecedented development . What comes next is the industrial revolution . Industrial bourgeoisie in order to expand overseas markets. Cheap imports from abroad and industrial raw materials . They desperately need to get rid of mercantilism (mecantilism1 international trade theory constraints. Oppose government intervention in international trade . Outflow of gold and silver against the ban on their own have been less interested in monetary gold and silver , but the specific material wealth ( production and consumption data more seriously. history of the bourgeoisie in order to meet industry needs , as represented by AdamSm economic liberalism began to prevail .

18百年中后期.资本主义工场手工工业在欧西各国取得了空前进展.随之而来的便是产业革命。产业资产阶级为了扩张国外市场.并从海外进口价格低廉的工业原料.它们十分急切需求脱离重商主义(mecantilism1国际商业活动理论的约束限制.不赞成政府对国际商业活动的过问.不赞成金银外流的禁止法令。


1776 Adam . Smith published the "AnInquiryintothNatureandCausesofWealthofNations} ( nature and causes of the wealth of nations study ) referred to as" The Wealth of Nations , "a book criticizing mercantilism . Against excessive government intervention in the economy . Founded the liberal economic theory . In international trade . He believes that the international division of labor and free trade. Emphasize the mutually beneficial nature of international trade . To put forward their own theory of international trade . Ie absolute cost advantage theory .
1776年亚当.斯密出版了《AnInquiryintothNatureandCausesofWealthofNations}(国民财富的性质和端由的研讨)略称《国富论》一书,斥责重商主义。不赞成政府对经济的过度过问。初次建立了自由主义经济理论。


2 . Theoretical assumptions and the main points
Absolute advantage theory assumptions are the following: ( 1 ) the world, only two countries, the two products , one kind of factor inputs , namely "2x21" model . The marginal product of inputs is fixed, constant returns to scale production ; ( 2 ) revenue budget constraint , consumption subject to income and can not borrow money to borrow consumption ; ( 3 ) foreign trade . No transportation costs and other transaction costs. 1:3 equal access to trade , that trade is balanced . Factors of production in a country is free-flowing , but the international community can not flow freely.


3, the market is free competition .
Seen. Absolute advantage theory is an ideal model . The theory is that . The basis of international trade commodity production efficiency per unit of product that is absolutely different labor time consuming differently: different commodity production efficiency is due to various countries have natural advantages and acquired advantages caused by different . Natural advantage refers to natural and geographical , climatic conditions, and other advantages. Ordinary human can not control , such as the Polish plains soil conditions are good . Food production and high efficiency. Units of food products consumed less absolute labor time . Its wheat production will have the absolute cost advantage gained advantage refers to a country to master a special commodity production techniques and skills. Skilled, high level of technology , production efficiency is high. The absolute unit production consumes less labor time .


( Two ) David Ricardo (David · Richado) theory of comparative advantage


1 . Historical Background
Early 19th century . The rapid development of the British Industrial Revolution . So when Britain became a " world factory ." But the landlord aristocracy in political life also plays an important role . 1815 , the British Government to safeguard the interests of the landlord aristocracy revised the " Corn Laws ", caused the British food prices , rents soared. Aristocratic landowners significant profit. But seriously damaged the interests of the industrial bourgeoisie . Expensive food prices force workers higher wages , commodity costs, reduced profits , weakening the competitiveness of industrial products . For the development of capital and increase profits needs. British industrial bourgeoisie urgently requires repealing " Corn Laws ", and the landlord aristocracy in a fierce struggle . Ricardo masterpiece published in 1817 {PrineiPlesofPo1iticalEcon-omvandTaxation} proposed a prerequisite for free trade "comparative cost theory ." This more general theory of international trade free trade on a more solid theoretical foundation. Western International trade theory laid the cornerstone of the core . But also for the industrial bourgeoisie provides a theoretical weapon.


2 . Basic concepts and theoretical logic
David . Ricardo (DavidRicardo) in Adam Smith 's absolute advantage theory proposed based on the theory of comparative advantage . Smith considered due to natural endowments and acquired favorable conditions are different . States have a product below the cost of production while his country has an absolute advantage. According to the principle of absolute advantage in the division and exchange , countries can benefit . Ricardo developed Smith's point of view. That determines whether the two countries for specialization and free trade is not based on absolute cost differences. But the comparative cost differences. In the " 2 ~ 2 ~ 1" international environment . Even if one of the countries on the two products are in the absolute cost disadvantage. Another country in the production of two products are in the absolute cost advantage. The two countries can still be international specialization and free trade as long as each of the parties to choose their relatively low cost product specialization and try to expand production, and strengthening export trade , the same trade can ensure both mutual benefits.


Ricardo "On Foreign Trade " chapter cites a popular example : "If two people can manufacture shoes and hats, one of them in both occupational stronger than another person , but only strong a hat / 5 or 20 %, while the shoe when the intensity is 1/ 3 or 33 % stronger then this person special shoe , while the poor people dedicated hat , is it beneficial to both you ? "


Ricardo 's theory of comparative advantage is built on the basis of the labor theory of value . The theory assumes that national differences in labor productivity . Which also implies that countries manufacture the same product production function is different, this is the basis for the formation of comparative cost advantage . The so-called comparative cost . Refers to the ratio of the cost of their different products with similar foreign products cost ratio for comparison. Ie, the ratio of the cost of different countries compare . As long as the rate of cost differences . Different countries should be " two heavy profit taking . Two evils take light" division of labor principle of comparative advantage . So the question between the two countries will be able to exchange with each other . And derive economic benefits .


Second, a comprehensive and objective evaluation of the classical theory of international trade


1 . Evaluation of absolute advantage theory
The theory can be seen as explaining the causes of the earliest international trade theory . It was first described by Labor benefits of international trade and infrastructure . For the mutual benefit of international trade theory to establish the foundation. Absolute advantage theory advocating free trade , so that it is opposed to mercantilism sharp weapon , accelerate the development of modern industry . The greatest contribution is to describe the theory of international trade is not necessarily a "zero sum ​​game" , a reflection of the international exchange activities in the " win-win" thinking .


Its main drawback is that the theory of international trade in determining the absolute advantage in time . To own a product of the same product costs and the cost of foreign direct comparisons , the absolute cost to determine the level and Export. Such a comparison will make all those in the production costs are at a disadvantage in countries can not participate in international trade. In addition . The theory does not consider demand factors . Can not explain how to determine the equilibrium price . Therefore can not explain the distribution of the proceeds of international trade .


2 . Evaluation of comparative advantage theory
Theory of comparative advantage inherited the absolute advantage of the theories of ingredients. Such as labor theory of value , specialization , free trade , more importantly, the concept of comparative cost is the cost instead of the absolute concept . The free trade policies have a more solid theoretical foundation. Made for the then policy of free trade has played a major role in the final victory . Theory of comparative advantage in international trade also addresses two fundamental questions: First, that the broad base of international trade . That is, any type of countries have the possibility to participate in international trade . This is more than Adam . Smith's theory of absolute advantage progressive place . Secondly, the proposed Specific principles of international exchange . Comparative costs is a unique comparative selection method. Than their cost of a commodity the same commodity costs and foreign direct comparison . Instead, the ratio of the cost of the different products compare .


Theory of comparative advantage also has obvious defects. First . Only to labor as the only factor of production. Ignore the capital , natural resources, technology and other factors impact on output ; Second, it is simply the relative costs of the two commodities are compared . To determine comparative advantage , but if the number of goods increases, it is difficult to determine comparative advantage ; Third, the theory of comparative advantage is not only the country differences in labor productivity as exogenous. But have not been able to explore the reasons for this difference . Compared with the absolute advantage theory . Theory of comparative advantage also did not consider the needs of Inso . Unable to determine the equilibrium price and international trade interests allocation problem.


In short . Classical theory of international trade produce . From an economic point of view explains the reasons for economic exchanges between countries . To some extent, reveals the development of international trade law . For the expansion of a certain historical period of economic exchanges and cooperation between countries . Promote the creation of social wealth has played a positive role. However, too much emphasis on the theory of commodity circulation . Ignoring the production processes . Adam . Smith and David . Ricardo were born in the bourgeois family , they represent the interests of the industrial bourgeoisie . Therefore, the theory with a strong class nature . Not only for the industrial bourgeoisie provides a theoretical weapon. But also for a certain period of colonial expansion of capitalism provided an excuse .

(责任编辑:anne)
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