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英语语言学论文代写范文:英汉叙事语篇So 与“所以”和 then 与“然后”逻辑语义关系对比研

时间:2015-05-26 10:58来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
The present study is aimed at analyzing how discourse connectives so and then inEnglish and suoyi(所以)and ranhou (然后) in Chinese narrative discourses are used, theiroccurrences, distributions and functions are the focus of analysi

Chapter One Introduction


1.1 Background of the Study
Discourse connectives are a category which is widely recognized since Schiffrin’s (1987)groundbreaking study on the subject. Discourse connectives are one of the common languagephenomena in discourse interpretation, which results in the understanding or constrains thecomprehension of a discourse. In previous studies, most research on them has focused onEnglish learners’ written English and spoken English (Aijmer et al., 2002; Fraser, 2005;Redeker, 1990; Schiffrin, 1988, 2006, Schourop, 1985). Few studies have actually attemptedto look at them in narrative discourses. So and then in English and suoyi(所以)and ranhou(然后) in Chinese are the most frequent discourse connectives used in narrative discourses butthey are often overlooked.So, suoyi, then and ranhou are linguistic devices available for narrators to shape atemporally and causally ordered storyline. As discourse connectives, since so, suoyi, then andranhou are predominantly used in textual organization and structuring, their functions arebeyond the boundary of words. They comprise both sub-sentential and supra-sentential units.Narratives are found to have a particularly high density of connectives compared with othertypes of texts. Bardovi-Harlig (2000) points that “the relationship between discoursetemporality and structure might be best exploited bidirectionally: discourse structure could beimproved if the temporal linkage is known, and vice versa, more temporal linkage might befound if the discourse structure is already known”. Narrative is always concerned withexperience, which indicates someone’s telling about something taking place in the outsideworld. This telling is addressed to reader that tries to understand and catch the point of thestory being told, imagining the scenes where particular events occur and making associationswith similar situations in which the reader might have been involved.
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1.2 Purpose and Research Questions
The present study is aimed at analyzing how discourse connectives so and then inEnglish and suoyi(所以)and ranhou (然后) in Chinese narrative discourses are used, theiroccurrences, distributions and functions are the focus of analysis in the thesis. They will beexamined in terms of the main logical semantic relations identified among clauses and clausecomplexes.(1): What are the occurrences and distributions of so and then in English and suoyi andranhou in Chinese narrative discourses?(2): What are the features of the roles of so and then in English and suoyi and ranhou inChinese narrative discourses?(3): How do the four connectives differ or concord with each other in narrativediscourses?Though progress is being made in study on discourse connectives, very few contrastivestudies have been carried out to discourse connectives in China. This study attempts anin-depth contrastive study of discourse connectives so and then in English and suoyi andranhou in Chinese narrative discourses. Besides, the research results might shed light on thefeatures of English and Chinese narrative discourse. Semantic relations and textual meaningsshould be interpreted in context rather than in isolation. This dynamic feature of language isnot only important to learning and teaching of language comprehension, but also to reading,writing and listening.
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Chapter Two Literature Review


2.1 Definition of Discourse Connectives
Discourse connectives (Warner 1985; Blakemore 1988) are text devices that signal therelation between adjacent clauses, sentences and paragraphs. Halliday & Hasan (1976: 277)pointed out that discourse connectives are used to indicate how subsequent sentence or clauseshould be linked to the preceding or the following sentences. Leech & Svartvik (1994: 264)stated that if these discourse connectives applied correctly, they can make explicit relationshipbetween clauses and point listeners/readers to the direction of the argument as intended by theteller, and thus improve the communicability of the text. According to Chinese linguists,discourse connectives provide cohesive ties which bind a text together.Discourse connectives have been studied under many labels such as “conjunctions”(Halliday and Hasan 1976), “discourse markers” (Schiffrin 1987; Blakemore 1988 and PonsBorderia 2005), “discourse particles” (Goldberg 1980; Schourup 1985), “logical devices”(Byrne 1982), “logical connectors”(Huang 1988), “cue phrases” (Knott & Dale 1994), “cuewords” (Rouchota 1996), “semantic conjuncts” (Quirk et al. 1985), “pragmatic connectives”(Van Dijk 1979), “utterance particles” (Luke 1987, 1990), “pragmatic expressions” (Erman1992), “discourse operators” (Redeker 1991), “linking adverbials” (Biber et al 2000),conjunctive words (Wang Li, 1954) etc.
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2.2 Classification of Discourse Connectives
There is no general agreement as for the classification of discourse connectives, differentscholars have taken up different classification of discourse connectives in terms ofhighlighting different aspects of discourse. According to the purpose of this study, theclassification made by Fraser’s is mainly used. Fraser presents a classification covering bothwritten and oral discourse connectives. According to Fraser, there are three groups of discourse connectives. They are:contrastive discourse connectives, elaborative discourse connectives and inferential discourseconnectives. Contrastive discourse connectives signals that the utterance following is acontrast or a denial of some proposition associated with the preceding discourse. The group ofcontrastive discourse connectives includes but, conversely, however, in contrast, on the otherhand and so on. Elaborative discourse connectives signal the sentences following whichconstitutes a kind of refinement on the previous discourse. Elaborative connectives includealso, besides, in fact, in other words, moreover, what is more and so on. Inferential discourseconnectives signal a conclusion which follows from the previous discourse. Inferentialdiscourse connectives include so, then, therefore, thus, of course, as a result and so on.
……….


Chapter Three Data Analysis ........ 16
3.1 Occurrences of so, suoyi, then and ranhou ......... 17
3.2 Positions and Distributions......... 18
3.2.1 Positions of so and suoyi and their distributions ....... 19
3.2.2 Positions of then and ranhou and their distributions......... 20
3.3 Logical Semantic Relations Realized by so and suoyi........ 22
3.4 Logical Semantic Relations Realized by then and ranhou ......... 25
3.5 Discourse Functions of so and suoyi ........... 27
3.6 Discourse Functions of then and ranhou..... 30
Chapter Four Results and Discussion .......... 33
4.1 The Four Connectives at Clausal and Macroclausal Level ......... 33
4.2 Similarities and Differences of the Four Connectives......... 37
4.3 Implication for Understanding the Nature of the two Languages....... 39
4.4 Significance for Language Learning and Teaching..... 41
Chapter Five Conclusion ....... 42
5.1 Major Findings of the Study........ 42
5.2 Implications......... 43
5.3 Limitations .......... 44


Chapter Four Results and Discussion


4.1The Four Connectives at Clausal and Macroclausal Level
The distribution of discourse connectives provides us with a hint to link the discourseunits in indicating both the logical relations and the writer’s point. The macroclausalconnectives are used to present a larger skeleton of the structure, and the clausal connectivesare used to indicate the linkage between propositions in detail. In our data, it is found thatbased on the distribution of connectives, suoyi only operates on the clause level, while sooperates both on the clausal and macroclausal level. For example (22): In this example, the connective so introduces the result. All the clauses from a to p formone topic which is about that the boy is running for the bus. That is, the information conveyedis not by the clause introduced by so, but by the clusters of clauses introduced by the three so.The scope of so does not seem to be a clause, but a larger unit such as a paragraph.

……….


Conclusion


The present study focuses on the use of so and then in English and suoyi and ranhou inChinese narrative discourses. Two pairs of discourse connectives are explored based on thetarget data chosen from the 100 English and Chinese flash fictions. With the statistical results,a group of findings are showed as followings.Firstly, detailed and systematic analyses show that the core function of so and then inEnglish and suoyi and ranhou in Chinese narrative discourses is its contextual function tomark continuation. So and suoyi presents a storytelling strategy that is driven by the reader’sdesire for causal coherence, and indexes a linear causal logic of the story. Then and ranhou innarrative performs a storytelling strategy that is driven by the teller’s desire for temporalcoherence, and indexes a linear temporal logic of the story. The meaning of discourseconnectives which results in a system signals the structural organization of narrative discourse.They facilitate the development of a coherent interpretation of the discourse. They arefunctional for an integrative interpretation, and thus are essential within the process ofestablishing of coherence. Discourse connectives are best treated as indicators of coherencerelations between hierarchically organized discourse units.
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Reference (omitted)

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