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隐喻翻译的认知主体差异性研究

时间:2015-12-01 16:41来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
The previous studies on the comparison of these three translations, especially onthe comparison of David Hawkes and John Minford’s translation and Yang Hsien-yiand Gladys Yang’s translation, which tends to focus on translating level。

Chapter One Introduction


1.1 Background of the study
The writer, Cao Xueqin, pictured us a brand-new world, in which girls are valued alot. Hongloumeng is a witness of the decline of the feudal society. The art and spirit ofthis novel is not limited in one field. Different aspect or angle provides us with differentbeauties of the novel. There are hundreds of characters in this novel. Not only are themain characters in this novel so vivid and natural but also those supporting charactersare so real and impressive. One of the features of this novel is that there are manymetaphors, which can be found everywhere in this book. Xiao Jiayan has classified sixkinds of metaphors in this肖家燕novel ( 2009). These metaphors are not only arhetoric tool; they are also a way of thinking and expressing.Among these six kinds ofconceptual metaphors, poetic metaphors enjoy its distinctive features. It is moreconceptual and creative, and acts as an important role in understanding poems. Manyresearchers analyze the poems in Hongloumeng in literary perspective. Haitang club composes many topic-oriented poems which are highly metaphorical. Researcherdiscussed the image, writing spirit, artistic methods and quotations in the poems. Tosome extent, theyare addressees while translators also play a role of addressers becausetheyhave to usetargetlanguageto rebuild poems.Sincemetaphorsactsasa vital roleinpoems, translating metaphors is an important part of translating poems, which fullyreveals the differences of translators’cognitive subjectivities.The history of translating Hongloumeng is over one hundred years. It has beentranslated into many foreign languages. English translations take the majority of thesedifferent versions. There are eleven English editions of translation. Among theseEnglish editions, only two complete translations of Hongloumeng have beenaccomplished, the others only translated some parts of Hongloumeng. Traditionalstudies analyze the translating strategies that different translators adopted and thetranslating results but neglect translators’cognitive subjectivities in translating. Havingdifferent social status, academic background and translating purpose, differenttranslators enjoy different cognitive subjectivities which affect their translation.
……..


1.2 Aim of the study
This thesis is going to find out the differences, reflection and effects of cognitivesubjects in the translations of metaphors in classical Chinese poems and howsubjectivity takes a part in the construction and deconstruction of metaphors.
The following questions will be solved in this thesis:
1. What metaphors are reserved in the translations of the classical Chinese poems?
2. What effects do translators’ cognitive subjectivities have in translatingmetaphors?
3. How do the differences of translators’ cognitive subjectivities affect thetranslations of metaphors?
……


Chapter Two Literature Review


2.1 Studies on Hongloumeng
Hongloumeng enjoys a vital position in the literary history of China. In fact, itsinfluence is not limited in one field. Zhang Ailing highly complimented Hongloumengthat one of the biggest regrets in Zhang Ailing’s life is that Hongloumeng is not张爱玲accomplished ( , 1995:2). Wang Guowei considered the value of Hongloumengis reflected in philosophy, cosmology and literature. Its value is opposite to the俞晓红traditional value but that is why this novel is excellent ( 2004). Yu Pingbocomplimented Hongloumeng that it synthesizes classical literature, especially thefeatures of classical novels, integrating the writer’s talented opinions and becoming an俞平伯outstanding work ( 2004:333). Many literary giants have given high evaluationabout this book. The charm of this novel is not only manifested in one aspect. Lu Xuncommented Hongloumeng that different readers would have different readingexperience; people who study on Yijing would find out Yijing;in this book those whostudy on Dao would find out wickedness; those who are talented would find outromance; those who are revolutionists would find out the resistance against Mangovernment; those who are rumormonger would find out gossip. This novel givesdifferentpeople different aesthetic enjoyment. Somepeople regardit as a realisticnovel.Truly, it reflects the reality of society in Qing dynasty. However, “realistic” is notsatisfying to describe this novel. It also presents heavily artistic and fictitious color.Although Cao Xueqin didn’t accomplish this novel, its value on aesthetics, philosophy,literary, linguistics, traditional Chinese medicine and many other fields is notdecreased.
……..


2.2 Studies on the translations of Hongloumeng
Being one of the four great masterpieces of China, Hongloumeng enjoysincomparable position in literary history. This novel has most different translations吴世昌among all Chinese novels. Wu Shichang ( 1980:281) summed up the differenttranslations of this novel. It has been translated into English, German, Dutch, Russian,French, Italian, Hungarian, Mongolian, Japanese as well as Xibo language. Accordingto Wu Shichang, there are seventeen different translations about Hongloumeng inEn吴世昌glish, Russian, French, German and Italian ( 1980:281). Among these,English translation enjoys the longest history and has the maximum editions. WuShichang especially pointed out the mistakes that the introduction of publication hasmade. It described Jia mansions are nothing but a slaughterhouse where girls aretortured to dead. This conclusion diminished the artistic value of the novel andsimplified the spirit of Hongloumeng, thus decreased the achievement of the translation(ibid: 487-488). Wu Shichang’s point earned Jiang Fan’s approval. Jiang Fan proposedthat the wrong interference of Foreign Language Press made bad consequence that thedegree of the recognition of Yang’s translation is not as high as Hawkes’江帆(2007:195). Jiang Fan divided the history of the English translations of Hongloumenginto three periods: the first period begins from 1830 to the end of nineteenth century;the second initiates form the beginning of the twentieth century to the end of 1950s; thethird one commences from the 1960s to nowadays (ibid: 20).
………


Chapter Three Theoretical Framework..........18
3.1 Embodied Philosophy..........18
3.2 Theoretical paradigm of Conceptual Metaphor Theory.......20
3.3 Theoretical paradigm of Conceptual Integration Theory.....26
3.4 Connections between CMT and CIT .....31
Chapter FourAnAnalysis of the Translations of The Metaphors......32
4.1 Translators’ embodiment experience.....32
4.2 An analysis of the translations of the poems on begonia.....35
4.3 An analysis of the translations of the poems on chrysanthemum....62
4.4An analysis of the translations of the poems on crab.....87
Chapter Five Conclusion............101
5.1 Main findings.........101
5.2 Limitations of this thesis..........109
5.3 Implications for future studies.......109


Chapter Four An Analysis of the Translations of The Metaphors


4.1 Translators’ embodiment experience
Wang Wenbin stated that translation is a meeting between a translator and anauthor. A translator cannot totally understand an author’s purpose; he cannotcompletely correspond to the author for both of them have distinct features. An authoror a translator relies on his or her personal perception and experience. No matter insource text or in target text, a subject’s personal tendency including his culturalatmosphere, comprehensive understanding about object, personality would be allpresented (王文斌 1999: 96-97). His proposal highlighted the cognitive objectivities inwriting and translating. Our conceptual world comes from human experience which isthe reflection of human mental experience (赵艳芳 2001: 54). Cognitive subjectivitycomes from embodiment experience. Embodiment experience is based on our dailyexperience; it shows translator’s social status, cultural background, educationalbackground, aesthetic interest, and translation purpose. These three translators’embodiment experience would be discussed from these five aspects.H. Bencraft Joly was an English colonial official in Macao and didn’t have anyacademic experience. His cultural background has heavy colonial color. Joly lived inperiod of industrial revolution in English. At that time, England was in the period ofcolonial expansion; and his social status was a colonial official. Thus his culture is fullof aggression and cultural assimilation. In his translation, he firstly pointed out that hedidn’t want to be a sinologist but was forced to translate this novel after he had studiedTzu Erh Chi. He also stated that he hoped this translation of Hongloumeng couldprovide a guidance for people who want to study Chinese ( Joly 1892, 1893). Jolydidn’t chase literary aesthetics. He translated this novel only for practical purpose. Heassumed this translation would be served as a tool helping native English speaker tolearn Chinese. Subjectively, he didn’t expect this translation provide aestheticexperience of reading.

…….


Conclusion


From the poems on begonia, we can classify three kinds of metaphors: 白海棠是物、白海棠是人、白海棠是自然现象. In the first kind of metaphors, we have thesefirst input spaces: 玉、梨蕊、梅花、缟袂、啼痕、玉烛. There are six different firstinput spaces in the second kind of metaphors:女子、仙子、西施、杨贵妃、霜娥、倩女. The third first input spaces have these:雪、冰.All these first input spaces have more or less connections with the second inputspace, begonia. Some of the connections are objective, some are subjective. The mostprominent objective similarity between white begonia and these first input spaces is the玉、雪、梨蕊、玉烛color. share the same white color with white begonia. The poets女子、 冰、雪often use to praise the purity of white begonia. This connectionbetween white begonia and the first input spaces is based on the poets’subjectivity bywhich they assume that first input space and second input spaces all have personalquality. The poets are good at connecting white begonia with some seemed-irrelevant啼痕、霜娥、倩女first input spaces such as . Superficially, these similarities betweenfirst input spaces and second input space are not so obvious. They are based on thepoets’ cognitive subjectivities. Through their experience, literary knowledge andpersonal perception, the poets find out those impressive connections and then makethese distinctive metaphors.
............
References (omitted)

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