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News Coverage of Tibet in the Hindustan Times

时间:2016-01-20 18:20来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
The proposed study aims to explore how Tibet issue is framed in the HindustanTimes under the theoretical framework of farming in terms of story number andlength, news type, byline, placement, news page, theme, source, favorability。

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION


This chapter includes four parts: the first part, the research background offers thebackground information of the proposed research; the second part discusses therationale of the study and provides the justification and appropriateness of the study;the third part presents significance of the present study from both academic andpractical perspective; the fourth part explains the organization of the thesis.


1.1Research Background
With past Tibetan riots and increasing tension between Chinese government andDalai Lama government in-exile, the Tibet problem has caused enormous concern ofworldwide media. Many Chinese communication researches have set about studyinghow foreign media covers the Tibet. Some found that Tibet was covered neithertruthfully nor objectively by the American mainstream media under mostcircumstances (Fan Shiming, 2000; Guo Yonghu, 2011; Zhang Zhi rong and Li Yun,2006). Other researches including Wang Yihong, Zhang Xiaowei, He Suming, DingJie, Jiang Xiaochuan (2010) discovered that the Germany media had the inclination ofcovering Tibet with negative tone and presented domestic audiences with Tibet whichwas far more than reality.According to Van Dijk (2000), news media born great significance of deliveringnews to the general public and played an important role in shaping the publicperception of the societal issues. Therefore, the way of the media portrayed the newscan affect audience’s interpretation and reaction on certain issues. Cottle (2000), Veno& Van den Eynde (2007) claimed that the media can be helpful to sustain the statusquo, facilitate the understanding and perpetuate the negative stereotypes.
......


1.2 Rationale of the study
Practically, with the rising of India and China as superpowers in south Asia, theSino-India relationship is full of subtleties and complication. On one hand, both sidesconsider the other as strategic cooperative partner for common interest but on theother hand, two countries contend with each other as competitor or even enemy forcertain reasons (Xuecheng Liu, 1994). However, among which the “Tibet problem”definitely is one of the largest obstacle in deepening and enhancing the relationshipbetween China and India. Therefore, in this respect, to understand how India viewsthe Tibet is necessary and meaningful for China both from aspects of diplomaticrelationship and geopolitical interest.Theoretically, according to the relative literatures, there have been few researchescarried out in exploration of the news coverage of Tibet from the perspective ofcommunication. If any, most of researches concentrate on analysis of thecharacteristics of news coverage of Tibet in American mainstream media. The studyof how Tibet is framed by other foreign media especially the media of neighboringcountries of China is barely conducted. To fill these gaps, the present study is makinga tentative endeavor to study how Tibet issue is framed by the Hindustan Times, anIndian leading newspaper, under the theoretical framework of farming by combineduse of qualitative and quantitative method.
.......


CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW


This chapter is the literature review. It is made up of three parts: the first part,the theoretical background offers the detailed introduction of the generation,development and the application of the framing theory; the second part summarizesthe existing findings, points out the gap that needed to be filled and offers theinnovation of the present study; the third part, framing devices introduces the detailedinformation of each variable.


2.1 News Framing Theory
According to Bryant & Miron (2004), the concept of “framing” has been appliedin the most fertile areas of current research in journalism and mass communication. In1974, sociologist Erving Coffman first used “frame” and defined it as “the principlesof organization which govern event” (1974, p.10).In later decades, framing analysishas been developed and extended in many fields, especially within the psychology,sociology, communication and etc. In present study, the communicational perspectiveof framing is adopted to analyze the Tibet coverage in the Hindustan Times.From communicational perspective, framing was depicted as “a strategy ofconstructing and processing news discourse” (Entman, 1993, p. 51-58; Gitlin, 1980;Pan & Kosicki, 1993; Tuchman, 1978) and “the process of selecting and highlightingparticular aspects of reality by the media” (Entman, 1991, p. 6-27; Gitlin, 1980;Norris 1995; Tuchman, 1978). According to Entman (1993, p.52),“To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them moresalient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problemdefinition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendationfor the items described”.
...........


2.2 Previous Study on Tibet
For the sake of clarity, the literature would be broken into three categories.The first category of researches is mainly about the study of the characteristics ofTibet coverage in American mainstream media. For example, Guo Yonghu (2011)found that news coverage of Tibet in the New York Times during1949 and 1959 wasfull of “cold war” or “anti-communist” ideology, stereotyped image, politicaltendency and negative evaluation through content analysis of the story number, newspage and prominent themes. According to Guo, the moves including signing“Sino-Soviet friendship Union Cooperation Treaty” and adoption of one-sided policyto protect the new-birth China founded in 1949 contributed to the tension of therelation between China and America. Along with the East-West cultural andideological differences, the Sino-American relation was further deteriorated.Correspondingly, this inharmoniousness reflected on the American media’s coverageof Tibet. Guo discovered that the image of Tibet was distorted by the New YorkTimes via highlighting those negative issues including conflicts between Chinesegovernment and Tibet, unequal treatment of Tibetan and human rights abuse and soon. In addition, the news stories relating to Tibet were mostly reported with negativetone.Fan Shiming (2000) analyzed how Tibet problem was portrayed by the New YorkTimes in terms of layout, topic, vocabulary use and source. Echoing Guo’s findings,Fan found that Tibet was not constructed as reality and the negative aspects of Tibetwere also devoted great space. Concerning the quotation, data showed that DalaiLama was the most frequently cited source which followed by Tibetan separatist,overseas Tibetan and Chinese government. Ordinary people were seldom mentionedin the news stories of Tibet. Fan pointed out that the commercialization trait ofAmerican media, political position of favoring Dalai Lama and unharmoniousbilateral relationship between two countries were the major reasons that led to theNew York Times’ biased reporting of Tibet. Zhang Zhi rong and Li Yun (2006) alsoharvested the similar findings.
...........


CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY .....17
3.1 Method .....17
3.2 Sampling ..........18
3.3 Coding ......20
3.3.1 Coding Unit ......... 20
3.3.2 Coding Variables.......... 20
3.4 Coding procedure....25
3.5 Coder Training ........26
3.6Inter-coder Reliability......26
CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISSCUSION .........28
4.1 Characteristics of Tibet Coverage in Hindustan Times.......28
4.2 Framing Analysis of Tibet Coverage in Hindustan Times...........37
CONCLUSION.........51
5.1 Summary of the Result ...........51
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for the Further Study .....54


CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISSCUSION


This chapter is the core of the study. It is made up of two parts: the first part is thestudy of reporting characteristics of Tibet in the Hindustan Times in term of newsnumber and length, news type, byline, placement, page, and theme; the second part isframing analysis of news coverage of Tibet in the Hindustan Times from the aspectsof source, tone and frame. The discussion is usually presented after the findings.It is needed to mention that the preceding eight variables are mainly analyzedthrough content analysis while the last variable-frame is textually analyzed.


4.1 Characteristics of Tibet Coverage in Hindustan Times
The general characteristics of news coverage of Tibet are examined with themethod of content analysis by analyzing the six aspects: number (how many), length(how long), type (what style), byline (by who), placement (what place), page (whatsection), and theme (what about).A total number of 143 news stories of Tibet are yielded in 2013. The monthlyreporting number is 12 on average. According to the Figure 1, August scores thehighest frequency with 19 news stories (13%) whereas three months including March,June and December are tied recording the lowest frequency with 8 news stories (6%).Comparing with August, April ranks the second place with 17 news stories (12%),which followed by May with 16 news stories (11%).The news number of October is15(10%) which is slightly over September with 13 news stories (9%). February ranksthe sixth among months with 11 news stories (8%), followed by November with 11news stories (7%), July with 10 news stories (7%), January with 9 news stories (6%).


..........


CONCLUSION


This part is the conclusion of the whole study, which including summary of theresult obtained from data, the limitations of this study as well as the suggestions forthe further researches.The present study is aimed to explore how Tibet issue is framed in theHindustan Times based on the theoretical framework of farming in terms of newsnumber and length, news type, bylines, placement, news page, theme, source,favorability, and frame by employment of qualitative and qualitative method. The firstsix variables are selected for content analysis the characteristics of Tibet coveragewhile the rest three variables are used for framing analysis of the Tibet.Concerning the characteristics of Tibet coverage in Hindustan Times, resultsshow that:Firstly, the reporting quantity of Tibet in Hindustan Times was presented afluctuating trend throughout the year of 2013. The coverage boom appeared in threemonths, namely, April, May and August for the occurrence the significant andprominent news event, including military conflict breaking out on the Sino-Indianborder, India PM visiting China, Tibetans’ protest on Chinese government policy .Thereporting number of remaining months maintained stable. Regarding news length,most stories fall into the interval of 0-600 words which indicate that the news relatingto Tibet was given a comparatively large space by the Hindustan Times.
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References (omitted)

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