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基于语料库的中国学习者英语作文中的言语错误研究

时间:2016-06-27 15:23来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
This research is corpus-based and different kinds of IL errors to be analyzed are collected from CLEC. Therefore, the first step is to have an overall picture about the situation of IL errors in CLEC。
Chapter One Introduction  
 
By  the  late  1960s,  second  language  learning  began  to  be  examined  in  much  the same way that first language learning had been studied for some time. Chinese learners were no longer regarded as producers of inappropriate, improper language who always made mistakes, but as smart and creative beings proceeding through logical, systematic stages  of  acquisition,  creatively  acting  upon  their  linguistic  environment  as  they encounter  its  forms  and  functions  in  meaning  contexts.  Through  a  gradual  process  of trial  of  error  and  hypothesis  testing,  learners  established  closer  and  closer approximations to the native speakers’ system slowly  and tediously. Many terms have been coined to describe the perspective that emphasizes legitimacy of learners’ second language systems. Among these terms, the best known is Interlanguage (Brown, 1987: 169) This chapter will introduce the background, the purpose and significance as well as the layout of the thesis. 
 
1.1 Background of the Study 
The  concept  IL  was  first  proposed  by  Selinker  in  1972,  which  means  “the systematic knowledge of a second language which is independent of both the learners’ mother tongue and the target language” (Ellis, 1994: 710). Since then, more and more researchers  of  second  language  acquisition  (SLA)  have  tended  to  regard  a  second  or foreign  language  (S/FL)  learner  language  as  a  kind  of  IL.  IL  indicates  how  L2 acquisition  occurs.  It  consists  of  two  components,  namely,  elements  from  mentalist theories of linguistics such as the notion of a language acquisition device and elements from cognitive psychology such  as learning strategies.  It is also indeterminate since it does not offer a very precise explanation of what  happens. IL is founded based on the assumption that a second language learner is using a language system which is neither L1  nor  L2  at  any  particular  moment  in  his  learning  sequence.  It  is  a  third  language which has its own grammar, its own lexicon and so on. The rules used by the learner are neither in his own mother tongue nor in the target language (TL). In fact, the notion that the language of second-language learners differs from native language (NL) and TL in some sense was developed independently at about the same time in the work of several different  researchers.  Slightly  differently,  it  was  called  ‘approximative  system’  by Nemser and ‘transitional competence’ by Corder.  
.........
 
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study 
This  research  is  corpus-based  and  different  kinds  of  IL  errors  to  be  analyzed  are collected  from  CLEC.  Therefore,  the  first  step  is  to  have  an  overall  picture  about  the situation of IL errors in CLEC, and then to make a comparative analysis of IL and the target language respectively in CLEC and COCA.  The  present  study  is  not  only  of  theoretical  significance  but  also  of  practical importance.  Theoretically  speaking,  the  current  study  is  significant.  With  the  development  of modern technology of corpus and computer, corpus-based researches of IL errors have been  undertaken  and  ever-undertaking.  However,  few  studies  have  been  made  to compare  Chinese  English  learners’  interlanguage  and  the  target  language.  The  present research will enrich the study of this field.  Practically speaking, the study is of great importance. Firstly, for Chinese English learners, not only will they get a better understanding of their learning English, but also they will know more about the original and authentic materials that the native speakers output. At the same time, it is useful for Chinese English learners to make cross-cultural communication successfully and comfortably. Secondly, on the part of English teachers, IL  is  an  important  part  of  teaching  for  those  teaching  relative  courses.  Therefore,  the research is worthwhile out of question.   
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
It  was  not  until  the  late  1970s  that  error  analysis  became  a  recognized  part  of applied  linguistics,  which  is  owed  much  to  Corder.  The  development  of  language errors’ study has generally experienced three stages from 1950s to 1970s: CA, EA, and the  theory  of  IL.  This  chapter  is  literature  review  chapter.  This  chapter  will  mainly introduce the IL theory and elaborate on EA, and then EA approach to IL study will be concerned.   
 
2.1 Interlanguage (IL) Theory 
IL theory is useful and helpful in examining the dynamic and complex process of SLA.  According  to  Ellis  (1994),  IL  theory  was  an  appropriate  starting  point  for discussions  of  SLA  in  that  it  was  the  first  attempt  to  explain  the  mental  processes responsible  for  SLA.  It  has  a  great  influence  on  studies  of  SLA  since  the  1970s.  It regards SLA as a creative hypothesis-testing process, learner language as a grammatical and developmental system and error as a part of IL. IL theory was initially intended to investigate  learners’  errors  in  their  language  output  and  general  patterns  of  L2 development. And then is a general explanation of its main premises, considered from a cognitive perspective (Ellis, 1999). Actually, learners’ errors are always along with the IL  development  during  the  L2  learning,  so  the  analysis  of  these  errors  can  provide  a method to analyze learner language. As is stated “the study of the speech and writing of learners,  or  what  has  come  to  be  called  learner  language,  is  largely  the  study  of  the errors of learners, because ‘correct’ production yields little information about the actual IL system of learners, only information about the target language system that learners have already acquired” (Brown, 1987: 32) 
........
 
2.2 Error Analysis (EA)
Error analysis is analyzing deviations from native speakers in the learner’s speech as well as written performance. The EA approach holds that the learner’s errors provide significant  evidence  of  how  a  L2  is  learned  and  the  state  of  the  learner’s  knowledge. Therefore,  in  order  to  find  out  the  causes  of  errors  and  the  ways  to  reduce  them,  the learner’s errors should be identified, categorized and analyzed. Error Analysis basically serves  at  least  two  major  objectives:  (1)  it  provides  data  from  which  inferences  about the stages of acquisition can be made; and (2) it reveals to teachers the specific area of the  TL  that  learners  have  most  difficulty  producing  correctly  and  what  error  types detract  most  from  a  learner’s  ability  to  perform  in  the  TL  effectively  (Dulay,  Burt  & Krashen,  1982).  It  is  carried  out  in  order  to  find  out:  how  well  the  learner  knows  the second  language,  how  the  learner  learns  the  second  language,  obtain  information  on common difficulties in second language learning, so as to provide an aid in teaching or in  the  preparation  of  teaching  materials  (Richards  etc.,  2000:  85).  EA  examines  the actual errors produced by  the learner in  L2.  It reviews both first and second language acquisitions as a process involving the active participation of the learner. This approach is based on cognitive psychology which sees errors as a clue to what is happening in the mind of the learner. In this approach, errors are seen as a natural phenomenon that must occur  when  learning  a  first  or  second  language  before  correct  language  completely internalized.  Much  of  the  work  in  the  field  of  EA  is  attributed  to  Corder.  In  1967,  he first  suggested  that  a  better  understanding  of  language  learning  should  come  from  a more  systematic  investigation  of  learners’  errors  by  discovering  the  ‘built-in  syllabus’ (i.e.  the  IL  continuum)  of  the  language  learner.  Many  of  the  efforts  of  the  following decade were in fact directed to discovering the natural sequences of EFL learning. It not only helps us gain some insights into the process of L2 learning, but also throws some light on the strategies the learner employs in the learning process.  
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CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY .... 11 
3.1 RESEARCH QUESTIONS .... 11 
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN ........ 11 
3.2.1 Corpus-based Study .... 11 
3.3 CORPORA USED IN THIS STUDY .... 12 
3.3.1 Chinese Learner English Corpus(CLEC) ........ 13 
3.3.2 Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) .... 15 
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........ 17 
4.1 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TYPICAL ERRORS IN CLEC ........ 20 
4.2 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VOCABULARY USAGES BETWEEN CLEC AND COCA .... 44
4.3 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COLLOCATION USAGES BETWEEN CLEC AND COCA .... 48
4.4 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE BETWEEN CLEC AND COCA ........ 55
4.5 SUMMARY OF THE CAUSES OF IL ERRORS .... 57 
4.6 SUGGESTIONS FOR ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING .... 59 
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION ........ 61 
5.1 MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH ........ 61 
5.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH........ 62 
 
Chapter Four Results and Discussion  
 
Results and discussion of the study are presented in this chapter. According to Gui (2005),  mistakes  are  committed  by  Chinese  English  learners  in  the  process  of  using English because of poor language processing (learners’ poor memory and carelessness), or  inappropriate  communicative  strategies  (beating  about  the  bush  due  to  lack  of language knowledge), and these mistakes can be corrected if they are pointed out to the learners  or  self–correction.  And  this  kind  of  mistakes  is  considered  as  mistakes  of linguistic  performance.  While  errors  cannot  be  self-corrected  since  Chinese  English learners  do  not  possess  relevant  linguistic  knowledge  or  competence,  and  this  kind  of errors can be considered as errors of linguistic competence. Gui said that it is better to distinguish these two terms because if you want to analyze Chinese English learners’ IL errors,  you  should  mainly  focus  on  errors  of  linguistic  competence.  However,  in  this thesis the errors in CLEC cannot be clearly distinguished which belongs to mistakes or which  belongs  to  errors.  Therefore,  mistakes  and  errors  are  put  into  the  same  label “errors”.  Firstly, the total number of different types of errors, namely, eleven types of errors is  displayed  and  then  the  most  common  seven  kinds  are  presented  and  analyzed  in sequence.  After  that,  the  comparative  analysis  of  three  most  serious  kinds  between CLEC and COCA are made in detail. After comparing those typical errors in these two corpora, some causes of IL errors will be found. Finally, some suggestions or strategies will  be  put  forward  to  improve  Chinese  English  learners’  English  performance.  First counts of different kinds of IL errors are presented as follow. 
.........
 
Conclusion 
 
With  the  help  of  CLEC,  COCA  and  the  software  AntConc,  the  author  made  an analysis of the IL errors of Chinese English learners and the typical errors committed in their compositions. In this chapter, the main findings  are presented. At the same time, the limitations and suggestions for further study are made.The aim of this paper is to help us to understand the situation of Chinese English learners’  IL  errors  committed  in  their  compositions  and  then  make  a  comparative analysis  of  IL  errors  in  between  CLEC  and  COCA.  The  researcher  has  conducted  a quantitative  and  qualitative  analysis.  CLEC  is  employed  to  obtain  Chinese  English learners’  compositions  and  COCA  is  employed  as  a  native  standard  to  make  a comparative  study  between  Chinese  English  learners’  English  usage  and  that  of  the native  speakers.  With  the  help  of  software  AntConc,  corpus  CLEC  and  COCA,  the following are the three findings which correspond to the three questions. 
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