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美国名校校训的认知解读

时间:2016-08-21 10:06来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
本文是英语语言学论文,本研究基于权威的美国新闻与世界报道这一杂志专业 2015 年 9最新美国大学排行的前百名的校训自建语料库,以认知语言学的概念隐喻理论框架和转喻理论为理论支撑。
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the Study
Metaphor attracted huge attention of the scholars, and it has been studying formore than two thousand years. It was first presented by Aristotle. From then on, thetraditional linguistics regarded metaphor as a kind of linguistic phenomena, which is arhetorical device used to modify the language. However, with the development of thelinguistics, a group of new linguistics emerged. Lakoff & Johnson are the mostexcellent scholars. They published their book Metaphor We Live By which symbolizesthe arrival of the new era of the linguistics. They not only put forward the conceptualmetaphor theory in that book, but also studied the metaphor systematically. Theyargue that there is no doubt that metaphor is a part of language. They also tested thatmetaphor is a mode of thinking and cognition. In other words, metaphor is not only akind of linguistic phenomena, but also a kind of cognitive phenomena. In this book,Lakoff & Johnson pointed out that metaphor exists everywhere in our daily life, evenin the mind. Since then, the theory of conceptual metaphor has been widely applied tothe study in many different fields and has generated ample results.Just like metaphor, the research history of metonymy is also not short. And it wasalso viewed as a figure of speech at first. Traditional linguist treated metonymy as adispensable ornamental means where one thing is used to substitute another.Metonymy has a referential function. It allows us to use a instead of another one .Lakoff &Johnson, presented in their book Metaphor We Live By that metonymy notonly belongs to a rhetorical device, but also a cognitive process. It is not only a way torefer, but an approach to improve our ability to get to know the world. From then on,metonymy has been viewed as a conceptual phenomenon. Since 1990s, metonymy asanother important component of human cognitive activity, has received the attentionof many researchers.
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1.2 Practical and Theoretical Significance of the Research
The motto highly summarized the university’s education concept and scholasticstyle. It’s not only the concentrated reflection of the educational principles and aims,but also the crucial content of cultural system of universities. The school mottoes athome and abroad are constantly evolving, and presenting the diversified trend.Mottois a means of school education that creates and nurtures talent. Besides, it has animmeasurable effect. Motto is like a “wake-up call”, which rings among school staffand students. Nowadays, many colleges and universities formulate “the charter of theUniversity”. They are aimed at the characteristics of school, running schoolindependently. Based on the American College motto research study motto can givefull play to strengths and make up for weakness, such as digging educational traditionand culture. Meanwhile, it explores the profound significance of school motto. Moreimportantly, it will enhance school’s reputation.In the past, studies on their different perspective were mainly focus on politics,education, translation perspective. Lakoff &Johnson(1980) put forward the statementthat metaphor and metonymy are cognitive way of thinking in essence. Metaphor andmetonymy are regarded as two cognitive styles. It not only provides theoretical basisfor people to construct new words, but also convenient for people to have clear anddeep awareness of things around people. Studies concentrated on metaphor andmetonymy theory have developed well. Therefore, with this theory as an inspiration,the thesis seeks to have a systematic analysis of U.S. University motto. Thetheoretical significance of the study of higher learning institutions’ motto of Americanis to provide a new perspective to interpret the motto.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
2.1. The Study at Home
The higher learning institutions’ motto highly summarized the university’seducation concept and the school’s running tradition. It’s a concentrated expression ofthe University organizational culture, and also reflected the value orientation of theUniversity. Domestic research on university motto are very few before 2000, but since2000, especially since 2005, academia and education on the research of the universitymotto increased significantly. More and more scholars began to study school motto inrecent years, and the researchers which divided into several kinds according to theresearch perspectives.There were more researches about motto in China. According to differentresearch perspective, the research of motto of China could be classified into severalsituations: (1) from the perspective of comparison of Chinese and western universitymottoes, the researchers figure out the similarities and differences between theuniversity of China and western countries. (2) From the perspective of history sources,the origin concept and connotation of the higher learning institutions’ motto wasstudied by the researchers. (3) From the perspective of culture, the scholars dug outthe profound cultural heritage, rich cultural connotation of the motto, and also theystudied the spirit and idea advocated by the University. (4) From the perspective ofeducation, the researchers figured out the educational philosophy and commoncharacteristics contained in the motto. (5) From the perspective of development,theinvestigators pointed out the existing problems and shortcomings, and put forward theimprovement principle and future development direction.
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2.2 The Study Abroad
The overseas study of higher learning institutions’ Motto was relatively few.There are mainly two types of the research about the school motto abroad. One is theresearch carried out by foreigners and the other is the research done by Chinesescholars who made the western school motto as the study object.In 1995, John Synott & Colin Symes published a book called The Genealogy ofthe School: An Iconography of Badges and Mottoes. They gave some detaildescription of the school motto for more than 50 schools. Duty, Honor, Country on themotto of United States Military Academy, which was written by General DouglasMac Arthur in 2008. The book mainly discussed the motto of United States MilitaryAcademy---duty, honor and country , presented the mottoes from the view of Political,stressed the great influence on nation and regarded the motto as the core idea of thismilitary academy.The thesis published on periodicals by the foreign scholars is mainly case studyof university motto. Such as:Nonsinit esse feros---- an essay on Ovid and the motto of the Royal College ofPhysicians of Edinburgh published by Donaldson I M L. The author discussed themotto’s relation to the couplet of Lation Verse of the poem composed by Ovid. Herepresented how the accurate text of Ovid’s original couplet offers an interpretationwas apposite at the time of the College’s foundation and is no less so more than threecenturies later.
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Chapter Three Methodology of the Research..........13
3.1 Introspective Method..........13
3.2 Empirical Method.......14
3.3 Data Collection...........16
Chapter Four Theoretical Framework.....17
4.1 Nature of Conceptual Metaphor..........17
4.2 Working Mechanism of Conceptual Metaphor....18
4.3 The Philosophical Basis of the Conceptual Metaphor......... 19
4.4 The Features of the Conceptual Metaphor.......... 20
4.4.1 Universality....... 20
4.4.2 Systematicy........21
4.4.3 Cultural Coherence.... 21
4.5 Classification of Conceptual Metaphors..... 22
4.6 Metonymy in Cognitive Linguistics....25
4.7 Working Mechanism of Metonymy.....26
4.8 Classification of Cognitive Metonymy....... 27
Chapter Five Cognitive Analysis of Mottoes of Top U.S. Universities....... 29
5.1 Introduction to Mottoes and School Mottoes...... 29
5.2 Analysis of the Metaphor in U.S. Top Universities’ SchoolMottoes...... 30
5.3 Structural Metaphor....30
5.4 Ontological Metaphors....... 35
5.4.1Container Metaphor.... 35
5.4.2 Personification Metaphor...........36
5.5 Orientational Metaphor.......37
5.6 Analysis of the Metonymy in U.S. Top Universities’ SchoolMottoes.... 39
 
Chapter Five Cognitive Analysis of Mottoes of Top U.S.Universities
 
5.1 Introduction to Mottoes and School Mottoes
Many scholars pay much attention to the mottoes, especially the school mottoes.Nevertheless, they have different views about the definition. Then the author of thispaper will introduce several definition of the motto and school motto.Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary(1997) explained themotto as short sentence, word group or phrase picked and utilized as a guide orbehavioral norms or as an expression of the aims or ideas of a family, an institution,etc. Cambridge International Dictionary of English with Chinese Translation (2001)said the motto is “a short sentence or phrase that deliver a principle of good or aproperly behavior.”Motto means“座右铭”in Chinese. In Modern Chinese Dictionary (2012), it wasdescribed as a kind of inscription that inscribed (especially words engraved or carved)on stone or metals. The motto also means the inscription put on the right side of theseat which is used for warning or encouraging oneself.Han Yu explained in Ci Hai(1999), which published by Zhonghua Book Companyin 1999 that the school motto as: for the convenience of school discipline, selectinga number of virtues plague caved on the horizontal board hanging in the public placeson campus. The words on the horizontal broad are school motto. “学校为训育之便利,选若干德目制成匾额,悬于学校公见之地,是为校训,其目的在使个人随时注意而实践之。In Modern Chinese Dictionary (1998) the explanation of the motto is “thewords which have the guidance function to the students.”(学校规定的对学生有指导意义的词语)。
..........
 
Conclusion
 
Under the theoretical guidance of cognitive linguistics, this paper has made atentative study of metaphor and metonymy expressed by Mottoes of Top U.S.Universities. This chapter makes a summary of this study. Firstly the major findingsof the study are represented briefly. Then the limitations of this study and suggestionsfor further study are illustrated.On the basis of the careful study of the language data, we got the followingmajor findings:Firstly, conceptual metaphor has been applied to mottoes of U.S. top universitiesin large quantities, including all of structural metaphor, orientational metaphor andontological metaphor. The mapping scope of metaphors is wider than that ofmetonymies. There are seven kinds structural metaphor, namely, PLANT metaphor,WIND metaphor, BAND metaphor, LIGHT metaphor, POWER metaphor and DEBTmetaphor. Orientational metaphor mainly focus on the contain metaphor andpersonification. As for the orientational metaphor, there are one major types:FRONT-BACK metaphor. The larger application of the language expressions ofmetaphors than metonymies leads us draw a conclusion when people conceptualizethe world and the everyday life, the metaphor is more convenient than metonymy. Atthe same time, it also demonstrates one of the innovative principles of experientialism abstract concepts are metaphorical in great extent.
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