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汉语重动句句法研究

时间:2017-03-26 16:14来源:硕士论文作者:lgg 点击:
本文是英语语言学论文,本文对汉语重动句进行了界定,认为汉语重动句是主语后接动宾短语然后复制动词再带补语的句型。
Introduction
 
Overview
Since Wang Li (1944) first paid attention to the copying phenomenon of verb inChinese, a lot of attention has been drawn to this special sentence pattern by linguistsstudying Chinese. They make studies from different perspectives, such as syntax,semantics, pragmatics and cognitive linguistics. They have made some descriptionabout the definition, classification, function and semantic meaning.Early linguists have done some pioneering researches and have given us a lot ofenlightenment. But they have no consensus about some basic questions of CVCS. Themost basic one is the definition of CVCS. What’s more, there is no unified criterion toclassify this sentence pattern. Thus some classifications are not all-inclusive. What ismore important is the property of each part in CVCS. It will analyze the syntacticproperties of this sentence pattern and the derivation progress by applying the theorieswithin the framework of Minimalist Program.
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Research Objectives and Research Questions
The thesis aims to derive CVCS within the framework of Minimalist Programand make a comparison between CVCS and English SVOC pattern. Therefore, somebasic concepts should be illustrated clearly.First of all, the basic concepts about CVCS will be introduced: What is CVCS?How should CVCS be classified?Moreover, it will discuss what the property of the predicate1 in CVCS is and itstopicalization. In addition, it will analyze the status of de and le.Then, it provides the basic assumption and shows the deriving process of markedand unmarked verb copying sentences in detail.Last, it compares CVCS with English SVOC pattern.Based on these objectives, this thesis attempts to analyze CVCS within theframework of Minimalist Program and tries to answer the following questions:1. What is the property of the predicate1 in CVCS?2. What is the grammatical status of the predicate1, de and le?3. How does CVCS derive ?4. What are the similarities and differences between CVCS and English SVOCpattern?
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Chapter One Chinese Verb Copying Sentence
 
Since Wang Li (1944) first noticed the phenomenon of copying verbs, CVCS hasbeen a major issue in the field of Chinese linguistic studies. Although there are manyresearches on this sentence pattern, scholars’ opinions on it are not unified. What’smore, it is very important to define and classify the object of study. Therefore,Chinese verb copying sentence is redefined and reclassified firstly in this chapter.
 
1.1 Defining Chinese Verb Copying Sentence
As for CVCS, it is named by different scholars with different terms in previousstudies. “Verb copying sentence” originates from Liu Weiqun (1986). Wang Li (1944)calls it “the repetition of predicates”. James Huang (1982), James H-Y Tai (1990) andHu Wenze (1994) call it “the phenomenon of verb copying”. “The construction ofverb copying” originates from Li Ne and Shi Yuzhi (1997). Fan xiao (1993) and WenSuolin (1999) name it “verb copying sentence”. Although they have used differentterms to describe this sentence pattern, the essence of the sentence pattern is the same.When we name a thing, we should obey two principles. The first one is that the nameshould be clear and can present the thing. The second one is that it should beconventional. The most common names of this sentence pattern are “the constructionof verb copying” and “verb copying sentence”. Considering this languagephenomenon is an independent sentence pattern, we think the name “verb copyingsentence” is a better one. Therefore, in this thesis, we call it Chinese verb copyingsentence.And what sentence pattern is Chinese verb copying sentence? To make clearwhat is Chinese verb copying sentence, some typical examples should be presentedfirstly.
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1.2 Classifying Chinese Verb Copying Sentence
In terms of the classification of CVCS, linguists have been trying to reach anagreement. However, there is still no consensus. After making a brief summary on thestandards and results of classifications by studying previous researches, we find thatthere are mainly two kinds of methods to classify CVCS: the first is according to thesyntactical construction and the second is according to semantic meaning. In terms ofsyntactical construction, Liu Weiqun classifies the verb copying sentences into twocategories: the first is S+V+O+V+de+C and the second is S+V+O+V+C (1-5). Li Neand Shi Yuzhi classify the verb copying sentences into four types: V+O+V+de,V+O1+V+C+O2, V+O+V+A/Vi and V+O+V+time (33). Zhao Xin classifies thissentence pattern into six categories:V+O+V+de+C, V+O+V+dao+N ,V+O+V +C+le,V+O+V+C+le+N,V+O+V+le+ge+C,V+O+V+le/guo+T (118). Scholars above allclassify the verb copying sentences according to the construction. On the other hand,some scholars classify the verb copying sentences from the perspective of semantics.Tang Cuiju classifies it into two kinds: causative verb copying sentences andnon-causative verb copying sentences (80). There are still other criteria to classify theverb copying sentences. For example, Hsieh (1992) proposes that the verb copyingsentences can be classified according to the verbs. The verb copying sentences can beobligatory and optional. Although their classifications are beneficial to their studies,there are some deficiencies in their classifications. For example, some of them can notcover all verb copying sentences.Therefore, it is quite necessary to reclassify CVCS. After examining lots ofCVCSs, we find that in some CVCSs, the complements follow the verb2 directly butin some CVCSs they are introduced by auxiliaries. Li Xianju also notices this featureof the verb copying sentence and he calls the auxiliaries markers. Therefore he adoptsdichotomy to classify this sentence pattern. “If there is a marker in the sentence, thesentence is named marked verb copying sentence. By contrast, sentences withoutmarkers are named unmarked verb copying sentences (10; my translation).” In thisthesis, Chinese verb copying sentence is also classified into two kinds: marked verbcopying sentences and unmarked verb copying sentences.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework......24
3.1 Light Verb Theory.........24
3.2 Feature Checking Theory.......27
Chapter Four The Properties of Chinese Verb Copying Sentence.....31
4.1 Predicate1 and Its Topicalization......31
4.1.1 The Properties of Predicate1............ 31
4.1.2 Topic on the Syntactic Layer...........34
4.1.3 The Topicalization of Predicate1..... 35
4.2 Analyzing the Status of de and le.... 37
Chapter Five The Derivation of Chinese Verb Copying Sentence.....42
5.1 Basic Assumptions........42
5.2 Deriving Verb Copying Sentence.... 43
 
Chapter Six Comparison between Chinese Verb Copying Sentence and English SVOC Pattern
 
The verb copying sentence is a special sentence pattern. But Chinese causativeverb copying sentence is similar to English causative SVOC pattern. This chapter willdiscuss the similarities and differences between these two kinds of sentence patterns.
 
6.1 Chinese Causative VCS and English Causative SVOC Pattern
In Chinese, there is a kind of special verb copying sentence. It is the causativeverb copying sentence. Similar to English causative SVOC pattern, it also hascausativity. Firstly, it is necessary to define Chinese causative verb copying sentenceand English causative SVOC pattern.According to Tang Cuiju (2001), these sentences should be classified into twotypes: non-causative verb copying sentences and causative verb copying sentences.Chinese causative verb copying sentence is a kind of sub-classification of CVCS interms of semantic meaning. It contains this kind of semantic meaning to some extent :somebody does something and at the same time has some effect on the object or onhimself or herself.(65) and (66) are obviously causative in that the action hejiu directly causes thesubject Wang Hua to become drunk and similarly the action ran toufa causes the hairto become black. By contrast, (67) and (68) are non-causative because what the VCshows is not the result of the predicate1. For instance, in (67), jiang de bang is notcaused by the action jiangke. It just describes the action jiangke. Similarly, in (68), theVC xue le banian describes how long the action lasts. It is also not the result of theaction.
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Conclusion
 
Chinese verb copying sentence is a very special and most frequently used Chinesesentence pattern. It has been extensively discussed. Many scholars have providenumerous important points of view. However, there is no consensus on many issues.Therefore, in this thesis, we mainly discussed some controversial issues, especially thederivation of this sentence pattern within the framework of Minimalist Program.The major achievements of this thesis are presented as follows:The definition of Chinese verb copying sentence is presently clearly. Based on theprevious studies, Chinese verb copying sentence is redefined as: the verb copyingsentence is a sentence with two identical verb and one verb is followed by an objectand the other verb is followed by a complement. The construction of the sentencepattern is V1+Obj+V2+Comp (V1 and V2 are the verbs with the same phonetic form). Atthe same time, because previous classification is not comprehensive, it is reclassifiedinto two types: marked and unmarked verb copying sentence.The properties of the main constituents in this sentence pattern are also clearlypresented. Any verb with a suitable semantic meaning can build the verb copyingsentence. But the verb tends to be monosyllabic transitive and continuous. And there isless syntactic restriction on the objects of predicate1. The complement is indispensableand can have different semantic directions. Predicate1 has lost partly the property of theverbal constituent but owns the property of the nominal constituent. And it can beregarded as the sub topic. In terms of the status of de and le, they should be treated aslight verb.
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